P‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍LEASE READ ALL the below requirements before starting. INTR

P‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍LEASE READ ALL the below requirements before starting. INTRODUCTION 800 words Review of literature 1600 words Methodology and methods 2000 words results and discussion 2000 words conclusion and recommendation 1600 words artefact 2000 words TOTAL 10000 words Project Title The rise of E-commerce and the downfall of brick and mortar shopping Research questions: • What brick and mortar business had to do in order to adapt to changes and what was the impact on business that did not approach e-commerce retailing during the pandemic? • What are the advantages and disadvantages on adapting to e-commerce and what are the best practices? In the retail industry and the effect on people (customer experience, cyber-security) • What techniques and approaches did big business such as Amazon used in order to keep up with the high demand during the pandemic? (staff, packages, costumer promise delivery date or data protection) 1. Introduction 1.1 Brief description and guideline 2. Literature review Definitions of Electronic commerce Objective of the studies Marketing and Customer perspective Goal and target audience 3. Methodology Data collection and analysis method Analysis comparison in revenue between e-commerce and high street retailers 4. Findings Adopting the latest trends and technology for a futureproof business Advantages and disadvantages of the e-commerce technology Protecting customers online data and its integrity Techniques and methods Barrier of e-commerce adoption 5 Discussions Key difference Benefits Preferred method of shopping and why 6 Conclusions Opinion and final conclusion with arguments Dissertation Proposal Form Proposed activity – aims, objectives, research question(s), and state how it is novel E-commerce is a growing part of not just retail, but the economy as a whole. Small businesses should look to selling online as not just an increase in revenue, but a way to further connect with their audiences and expand their name. While brick-and-mortar is far from gone, online sales are becoming a major part of how we shop — in Canada, in the . and across the world Adapting to e-commerce is not an instant effect. It’s a learning curve. It takes time to get it right but making sure that you work with e-commerce is vital for the future of any business and its longevity on the market. The biggest draw right now for having an online store is that it gives stores an opportunity to connect with the customer base they have lost. Your custom range is not limited by how many people you can have in a store at once or your local regulations. According to UNCTAD, Global e-commerce jumps to $ trillion, as COVID-19 pandemic boosts online sales in 2021. The pandemic has, however, resulted in mixed fortunes for some e-commerce companies, reversing the profits of firms offering services such as ride-hailing and travel. For instance, Expedia fell from 5th place in 2019 to 11th in 2020, Booking Holdings from 6th to 12th and Airbnb, which launched its initial public offering in 2020, from 11th to 13th on the organization charts. B2C e-commerce companies rose by % in 2020, higher than in 2019 (%). There were particularly large gains for Shopify (up %) and Walmart (%). Overall, B2C (business to consumer) top 13 companies stood at $ trillion in 2020 according to estimates in an UNCTAD report published on 3 May. On the other side of the story, according to the Office for National Statistics, Brick-and-mortar sales have fallen by 14% so far this year. This is obviously a huge worry for retail store owners who wonder how their businesses will fare over the coming months and years — especially as customers have started to aim for online stores during lockdown, quarantine, and self-isolation The purpose of this project is to re-examine existent research on the business that have been impacted positively by the coronavirus pandemic such as (B2C) Amazon between 2020 and 2021 and how logistics, home delivery and business-to-consumer distribution was handled during this time. Research will also be conducted on less lucky businesses that have fallen drastically in sales and revenue such as family businesses and independent organizations. AIM: to give the brick and mortar businesses a new perspective to look at in order for them to adapt e-commerce approach and adapt to changes that are inevitable happening around the world (life after covid). Objective: to find solutions and action plans based on data gathered from multiple businesses that will help them adapt to the upcoming changes during covid, also to give suggestions and help to older family businesses that have not yet adopted e-commerce. Reference websites: 2022. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 2 January 2022]. . 2022. Impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on retail sales in 2020 – Office for National Statistics. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. 2022. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 4 January 2022]. 2022. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 4 January 2022]. 2022. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 4 January 2022]. 2022. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 4 January 2022]. 2022. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 4 January 2022]. 2022. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 4 January 2022]. Research questions: • What brick and mortar business had to do in order to adapt to changes and what was the impact on business that did not approach e-commerce retailing during the pandemic? • What are the advantages and disadvantages on adapting to e-commerce and what are the best practices? In the retail industry and the effect on people (customer experience, cyber-security) • What techniques and approaches did big business such as Amazon used in order to keep up with the high demand during the pandemic? (staff, packages, costumer promise delivery date or data protection) Novelty: Finding the right balance between online retailing and physical shopping and looking for missing pieces in order to determine the fluctuation and revenue based on our timeline and world events, this research might or might not contradict some of the known research and statistics such as on e-commerce or UNCTAD in depth reports based on 2020-2021 covid-19 effect on e-commerce. Reference: Statista. 2022. COVID-19 impact retail e-commerce site traffic 2020 | Statista. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Working group on measuring e-commerce and the digital economy, second meeting | UNCTAD. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on retail sales in 2020 – Office for National Statistics. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. Methodology – rationale, data selection and collection, recruitment, participant demographics, analytical process Methodology, according to Dew (2007, p. 433), refers to ‘the principles underlying particular research approaches, as distinct from “methods”, which are ways of collecting data’. Methodology determines a method for researchers to produce data for analysis (Carter & Little 2008; Hesse-Biber & Leavy 2011). It is crucial that qualitative research should be situated within a methodological framework. According to Avis (2003, p. 1003), researchers need to provide their ‘methodological justification’ by discussing the reason why they select a particular method in their research. Often, researchers simply suggest the use of a specific method, for example an in-depth interview or focus group, without giving the theoretical context or methodological framework (Avis 2003; Carter & Little 2008) The project research methodology will be based on quantitative secondary data analysis, which will involve statistical analysis of data that were already collected by other organizations and statistical researchers to determine the fluctuation and predictions in revenue of e-commerce vs brick-and-mortar shopping. This methodology will critically analyse information gathered by the latest statistics on the chosen organizations and identifying gaps within the current knowledge and by showing limitations of theories and points of view. This approach will incline the research towards a literature review that will show an in-depth knowledge and actions towards the goal of the project. References Saunders, M. N. K., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students (5th Edition). London: Pearson Education. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine. Websites: Statista. 2022. COVID-19 impact retail e-commerce site traffic 2020 | Statista. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Working group on measuring e-commerce and the digital economy, second meeting | UNCTAD. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on retail sales in 2020 – Office for National Statistics. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. Project management Table: Project timeline and key outputs Month Activity 01/01/2022 – 04/01/2022 Introduction 05/01/2022 – 07/01/2022 Literature Review 08/01/2022 – 11/01/2022 Methodology 12/01/2022 – 20/01/2022 Findings 21/01/2022 – 22/01/2022 Discussions 23/01/2022 – 25/01/2022 Conclusions 1. Introduction Brief description and guideline 2. Literature review Definitions of Electronic commerce Objective of the studies Marketing and Customer perspective Goal and target audience 3. Methodology Data collection and analysis method Analysis comparison in revenue between e-commerce and high street retailers 4. Findings Adopting the latest trends and technology for a futureproof business Advantages and disadvantages of the e-commerce technology Protecting customers online data and its integrity Techniques and methods Barrier of e-commerce adoption 5 Discussions Key difference Benefits Preferred method of shopping and why 6 Conclusions Opinion and final conclusion with arguments Supervision Meetings Research Data Management Plan (Describe the data you expect to acquire or generate during this research project, how you will manage, describe, analyse, and store the data and what mechanisms you will use to share and preserve your data.) Plan: Planning can include reviewing existing data sources, addressing informed consent, considering costs, and preparing a plan. Create: Researchers produce data (experiment, observation, measurement, simulation) and/or collect and organize third-party data and materials. Process: Data is converted to digital format (transcribed, converted, digitized, curated) according to quality assurance standards. Data is checked, validated, cleaned, recoded, versioned, and as needed, anonymized. All these processes are documented, and the data is described using the appropriate discovery metadata standard. Analyse: Data is interpreted and analysed to produce research findings, publications, and intellectual outputs. Data sources are cited. Preserve: Data is saved to formats that conform to curation best practices, user documents and discovery metadata are created, a digital identifier (. DOI) is added and data is linked to any published products, consideration is given to security and IP. Share: Access rights are confirmed (ethics and intellectual property considerations). The data, along with user documentation and metadata, are made accessible, . on a public domain server, or in a controlled repository. Reuse: Potentially useful data, user documentation and metadata are located and obtained. Secondary analysis is conducted after any necessary data transformations are complete. Transformation is documented and data sources are cited. Planned outputs/publications/research datasets/impact/dissemination To have a better understanding about the e-commerce marketing during the pandemic (2020-2021) and to list all the benefits and risks that comes with owning an e-commerce business whilst still having a physical one. If successful, I undertake to carry out the research according to the University’s Ethics code of Practice and will be required to complete an Ethics checklist – see relevant forms detailed under Primary Research (Applicant’s signature required) Research Ethics Application Form All research conducted by Arden University students require ethical approval. The application should be sent to your supervisor with your research proposal and any supporting documentation such as a recruitment invitation letter or guide, recruitment flyer (online/offline), participant information sheet, informed consent form, per‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍mission letter form an organisation to use their premises, participant instruction guide, questionnaire, measures, interview questions, debrief form, and any supporting or additional documentation that will be provided to the participants, or those helping with the research such as gatekeepers and assistants. Secondary Research Only (Answer up to and including Question 3) Complete information up to and including Question 3 if you are conducting ONLY secondary research and can answer YES to the following question: This investigation will NOT involve the collection of data from human participants, though it may collect data about individuals from published matter (., previously published interviews or behavioural data). Once the application and research proposal are reviewed and approved by your Supervisor, it will be sent to the Module Leader (ML)/Programme Team Leader (PTL) for final approval. You cannot collect data until final approval has been provided by the ML/PTL. Project Title The rise of E-commerce and the downfall of brick and mortar shopping Project Summary While the progressive e-commerce growth could be observed long before Covid-19, it was the fast-spreading virus that has radically changed consumers behaviour and forced companies to speed up digital transformation National lockdown and fear of contamination made people stay at home. Non-essential shops were closed and those which remained open had to instantly reorganise. With limited access to bricks-and-mortar, consumers shifted to e-commerce in a flash. Making their goods available online and creating a delivery service was a crucial survival move for most businesses, and a year on from the pandemic starting, we can clearly see that only those with a well-established online presence were able to make it through this difficult time for retail One of the important ways e-commerce differs from traditional commerce and physical retail is that it gives people access to goods and services without having to be tied to physical location. This means customers don’t have worry about long lines or how they’re going to get to a store or get back. They don’t have to go anywhere. Everybody has access to it, as long they have an internet connection. It also gives them access to a wider range of sellers than they would otherwise have when they’re restricted to just to their physical location. The goal is to reach and give Businesses a new perspective on catching up with consumer behaviour and e-commerce adoption to effectively serve customers and scale their operations. To do so, the adoption of technology throughout the supply chain will be necessary to support an e-commerce-enabled business and maintain customer experience throughout the shopping journey. Research Method Explain the research method you will use and the rationale for your choices (. research methods – online survey, observation, interviews, data selection and collection – online forums, social media sites, face to face – and name them . LinkedIn) Secondary data collection methods will be the main focus when conducting the research and collecting relevant information from trusted sources in order to find answers and statistics to the research problem This research method is based on data that has already been collected and published in magazines, books or online forums and websites. As there is an abundance on information on the online platform, these sources will have to be checked and compared with other reliable sources in order to prove a point and answer a question. Therefore, secondary data plays an important role in terms of increasing the level of research validity and reliability. These can include but not limited to the credential of the author, reliability of the source or the depth of analysis. Statista. 2022. COVID-19 impact retail e-commerce site traffic 2020 | Statista. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Working group on measuring e-commerce and the digital economy, second meeting | UNCTAD. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on retail sales in 2020 – Office for National Statistics. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. What are the planned or desired outcomes of the research? Outline what you expect to achieve from the research (outline your research outcomes) (. testing a new concept, develop an intervention) Further examination and comparison of the pandemic on e-commerce retailing compared to brick-and-mortar, and at what point did online shopping took over physical one and what were the statistics on revenue and effect on customers during lockdown. With the purposed of achieving a better understanding that e-commerce might or might not take over brick-and-mortar shopping experience should there be another pandemic. Please circle Yes or No to the following questions and where indicated please provide further information 1. Are you required to use a professional code of ethics and conduct relevant to your profession (. British Psychological Society, Health Care Professions Council National Health Service, Ministry of Defence, the Law Society) YES/NO If yes, please state 2. If yes, have you read the relevant professional code of ethics and conducts? YES/NO 3. Are you sourcing secondary data? (. Information from web sites, journal articles, archives) YES/NO If yes, please provide details Secondary data will be used such as websites, articles that will support the research questions mentioned above. Archives and statistics between 2020-2021 on how e-commerce expanded the market and also how other brick-and-mortar businesses have fallen during the pandemic according to a journal on ‘How would the COVID-19 pandemic reshaped retail’ by Anupam Nanda, Yishuang Xu * , Fangchen Zhang published in 2021 via Arden e-library. On the other hand Argod V. (2021), estimates in his article found on Arden e-library, that “by 2040, 95% of all purchases will be facilitated by e-commerce”. Argod, V. (2021) ‘2021 E-COMMERCE: NO REST FOR THE WEARY: COVID-19 accelerated e-commerce demand to levels that weren’t expected until 2025. How can supply chains get up to speed–and fast?’, Logistics Management (Highlands Ranch, Co.), 1 April, p. 60. Available at: (Accessed: 4 January 2022). . 2022. Home page | Arden Library. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. Statista. 2022. COVID-19 impact retail e-commerce site traffic 2020 | Statista. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Working group on measuring e-commerce and the digital economy, second meeting | UNCTAD. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on retail sales in 2020 – Office for National Statistics. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. (THIS IS THE END OF THE FORM TO BE COMPLETED IF YOU ARE UNDERTAKING SECONDARY RESEARCH) (IF CONDUCTING PRIMARY RESEARCH, PLEASE COMPLETE THE REST OF THE FORM Primary research is used if your investigation involves the collection of data directly from human participants, rather than depending on data collected from previously completed research, and this can be in the form of a questionnaire, survey, interview or experiments. All forms for primary research MUST accompany this Ethics form, including A full draft of the questionnaire, interview questions, survey or experiment PLUS: • Participant Information Sheet • Participant Informed Consent Form • Participant Debrief Sheet • Evidence of organisational approval (where relevant) • Recruitment poster/invitation letter or email These forms can be found in the Dissertation Module on ilearn A proviso is to be used if all of the correct paperwork has been submitted, and this includes a questionnaire that addresses the research aims and objectives, but which requires some minor amendments such as phrasing of questions, typos, grammatical errors and so on. Therefore, the form can be approved as long as the conditions of the proviso are met. Guarantee of the changes being met can be authorised by the supervisor and this will save going through the whole proposal/ethics approval process again. The supervisor MUST see the proviso changes before the student uses the instrument. 4. Are you using an external research instrument or validated scale? (. survey/psychometric)) YES/NO If yes, please provide a reference. 5. Are you sourcing primary data involving participants (. Surveys, interviews, focus group, Internet forums)? YES/NO 6. Are you dealing with sensitive data (. personal data, organisational data, those with vulnerable groups)? YES/NO If yes, please outline how this data will be stored securely to ensure compliance with GDPR (all data MUST be stored on the AU Onedrive, not on personal drives) 7. Are you sourcing secondary data? (. Information from web sites, journal articles, archives) YES/NO If yes, please provide details Trusted websites sources will be used as secondary data such as; Statista. 2022. COVID-19 impact retail e-commerce site traffic 2020 | Statista. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Working group on measuring e-commerce and the digital economy, second meeting | UNCTAD. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. . 2022. Impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on retail sales in 2020 – Office for National Statistics. [online] Available at: < [Accessed 3 January 2022]. 8. Does the study require DBS (Disclosure and Barring Service) checks? **Please note that unless already working with this population, permission will not be granted to students to data collect from this population) YES/NO If yes, please provide serial number, date obtained and expiry data 9. Does the study involve direct contact with: **Please note that unless already working with this population, permission will not be granted to students to data collect from this population) Vulnerable adults (. learning difficulties, dementia, living in residential care) YES/NO Those under the age of 18 YES/NO Adults in prison/remanded in custody/on bail YES/NO If yes, please outline the participant group Data Security 10. Can you guarantee the full security and confidentiality of data collected? YES/NO If no, please outline reasons **Please note that any electronic data should be stored on Arden University’s one drive (therefore students must use their Arden email address for data collection, communication etc.) 11. Please outline how you will ensure anonymity and confidentiality of data 12. Will you be responsible for destroying the data after the research is complete? YES/NO If yes at what date will the data be destroyed? Any names/business that will be involved into my research will be only sent out via arden website to submit my final project/dissertation. The file will then be deleted as my project has been finalized. If no, who will be responsible? **Please note that data should be destroyed as soon as possible (when full data usage has been completed) but no later than 3 years from data collection. Informed Consent 13. Will all participants receive information as to why the research is being conducted and what their participation will involve? YES/NO If no, please state reasons 14. Will all participants be asked to give informed consent before the study starts? YES/NO If no, please state reasons 15. Will all participants be told of the data being collected and how the data be used? YES/NO If no, please state reasons 16. Will all participants be told that they do not have to participate in the research? YES/NO If no, please state reasons 17. Does the study involve deception? YES/NO If yes, please provide detail Risk of Harm 18. Is there any risk that the research may lead to physical/psychological harm or disclosure of criminal activities/convictions? YES/NO If yes, please outline and explain what you will do to reduce risks 19. Is there any significant risk that participants may disclose the harming of others or harming of themselves? YES/NO If yes, please provide details and actions you will take Participant Recruitment 20. Are you proposing to recruit participants who are students or staff or Arden University? YES/NO If yes, please provide details of any potential conflict of interest and how this will be mitigated 21. Employees of organisations? YES/NO If yes, how will permission be gained from the organisation? 22. Students through educational institutions? YES/NO If yes, how will permission be gained from the institution? 23. Participants in residential care, social care, nursing homes YES/NO If yes, how will permission be gained from the organisation and individuals/carers? 24. Adults in prison, in custody, on remand YES/NO If yes, how will permission be gained from the organisation and individuals? Online Research 25. Will any of your research involve online data collection? YES/NO (. online surveys, Facebook, Linkedin. Twitter) 26. Will you be using a survey software (. Gorilla or Microsoft Forms)? YES/NO If yes, please provide details Participant Payment 27. Are payments/incentives being offered to participants? YES/NO If yes, please provide details 28. Will you tell participants tha‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍t payment/incentives do not affect participants right to withdraw their data? YES/NO