A: An inflammatory response consists of an innate and adaptive component.
Following an infection, indicate which component is activated first and identify at least three characteristics of this component of the immune response.
B: Imagine a virus has managed to infect your respiratory system and intracellular signals have been initiated through the activation of Toll like receptors-3 (TLR-3) in immune cells. What are the TLR and where are they primarily located?
C: Regarding TLR-3, indicate the unique location of TLR-3 and explain their function.
Serafina is a keen BMX rider. During one of her rides she hit a log and she was thrown off the bike. She dislocated her elbow. In hospital she was administered propofol to anesthetise her whilst her elbow was reset.
- In your own words discuss the mechanisms of action of this anaesthetic.
- In your own words describe the mechanism of action of the intravenous anaesthetic, ketamine. What action of ketamine is similar to propofol?
- You work for a pharmaceutical company and are developing local anaesthetic drugs. You developed two similar drugs (PBC1204 and PBC3454) but Drug PBC1204 was found to be ionised in extracellular fluid and proved not to work well. Drug PBC3454 was much more efficacious.
- In your own words discuss the mechanism of action of local anaesthetics and explain why Drug PBC3454 is more efficacious.
A: Describe the classes of somatosensory nerve fibres and which of these do you think would transmit a stimulus like a needle piercing your skin?
B: Describe the molecular structure of a TRPV1 protein subunit.
C: You are investigating a novel analgesic agent. It acts on Purinergic P2X receptors and you hypothesise that it is an analgesic agent. In your own words discuss the mechanism of action of the novel drug.
D: Actually, you find that the drug is hyperalgesic. How would you explain this effect of the novel drug
A: Discuss the mechanisms of action of leflunomide and ibuprofen
B: Methrotrexate is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The drug is co-administered with folic acid. In your own words discuss the rationale for this.
C: In a hypothetical scenario a drug company was trying to develop a new immunosuppressant for solid organ transplant patients. In early studies it was found that the drug enhanced calcineurin activity. In your own words discuss the intracellular consequences of such an action and explain whether the drug is a future new immunosuppressant.