How does type 2 diabetes affect blood flow, especially to extremities?

Physiology Research PaperDUE:____5/20/2022________Part I: Your TopicThe topic is your choice, but it must connect to Anatomy/Physiology. Topics could include a disease or injury, their treatments, preventative health measures or other related subject. The topic should be broad enough so that you can find at least 5 acceptable sources, yet not so broad that you cannot cover that topic with enough depth. You will probably need to gather some background information from sources such as American journal of medicine, Web MD and other reputable websites.The point of the initial research is to focus and narrow your topic. For example, the topic of cancer is too broad, but the topic of reconstructive breast surgery following breast cancer could be great. Write the overall question you will research. This question will be the title for your paper. There is an example on following page.Sample write upHow does type 2 diabetes affect blood flow, especially to extremities?About a year and a half after a serious car accident, I scheduled a follow up appointment with my vascular surgeon. He had worked into the wee hours of the night to repair a damaged section of the femoral artery in my right leg, but I was still in quite a bit of pain when I walked. During my visit, he reviewed the results of a blood flow study conducted by the hospital the previous week. He explained that, although the blood flow to my lower right leg was not on par with my left leg, injuries would still heal and, with continued excise, my brachial-ankle index could still improve. One thing that stood out to me was that he repeatedly said “Just don’t get diabetes.” A few months later, I saw in the news that an elderly actress had her lower leg amputated as a result of complications with type 2 diabetes.I know that type 2 diabetes somehow affects blood flow to organs and extremities, but I don’t know the specifics. I will discuss both the pancreas and blood vessels in this research paper. I will describe the anatomy and function of the pancreas and the structure of blood vessels. The topic of the effects of type 2 diabetes is clearly important to me and my own health. I hope to learn the underlying causes of blood flow problems associated with type 2 diabetes and learn how to keep myself healthy given my medical history. Some of the questions I have are: What is type 2 diabetes? How does sugar affect the blood vessel wall? Does it damage it? What are the effects of insulin resistance on blood vessels?http://www.diabetes.co.uk/diabetes-complications/poor-blood-circulation.htmlhttp://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/basics/complications/con-20031902http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/diabetes/www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100504124340.htmPEER REVIEWEDwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080313124430.htm PEER REVIEWEDhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12610056 PEER REVIEWEDPart ll: Make sure you follow the format and source guidelines listed here.1. Format for outline is 12-point Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins and sub points indented (10 points) Excluding the Introduction and Conclusion, write each main point as a question. Gather information from your sources to answer the question2. Outline content:a. shows a mix of sources presented in a logical and clear manner; sources cited in outlineb. anatomical description3. A separate Reference page with all sources cited in the outline. Format for references follows APA: Alphabetized, 12-point Times New Roman, double spaced, 1-inchmargins and hanging indents for all lines after the first line for all entries. Please note that only the first word of a title or subtitle is capitalized (along with proper nouns) (10 points)4. A total of 5 sources including 1 book, 2 peer reviewed journal articles and 2 other sources of your choiceSample outline :How does type 2 diabetes affect blood flow to the extremities?1. Introductiona. The effects of diabetes on blood flow to extremities is important to me because I have vascular insufficiency due to an injuryb. My doctors have warned me not to get type 2 diabetesc. Recent studies have shown the mechanism by which type 2 diabetes affects the walls of the blood vessels2. What is type 2 diabetes?a. There are multiple causes of diabetes, all with the end result of there being too much glucose in the blood (Saudek, 2014)b. Type 2 diabetes is the result of the body not making enough insulin and not responding to the insulin made by the pancreas (Saudek, 2014)c. The pancreas is ai. flattened organ about 5 inches long located posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach (Tortora, 2012)ii. scattered among the acini are the beta cells which secrete insulin (Tortora, 2012)iii. in a healthy individual, the pancreas is stimulated by high glucose levels in the blood after a meal. The insulin enables the glucose to enter the cells by triggering the formation of channels in the cell walls (Krough, 2014)iv. In an individual with type 2 diabetes excess glucose remains in the blood3. How and why are the blood vessels of individuals with type 2 diabetes affected by their disease?a. Those with diabetes are at increased risk of developing atherosclerosis, a disease of the large muscular arteries (Robertson, 2006)i. Muscular arteries include the femoral and are medium gesized arteries with a large amount of smooth muscle in the tunica media which can contract to maintain vessel pressure and efficient blood flow (Tortora, 2012)ii. Atherosclerosis is responsible for many diabetic complications including leg amputation (Cell Press, 2006)b. What are the effects of high blood sugar in blood vessels?i. Increased production of free radicals that cause premature cell death (University of Rochester, 2008)ii. Reduces availability of nitric oxide which would otherwise relax blood vessels and increase blood flow (University of Rochester, 2008)iii. Diabetics produce molecules (AGEs) in greater amounts which sabotages an enzyme that signals the protection of nitric oxide (University of Rochester, 2008)c. What happens when endothelial cells of blood vessels can respond to insulin?ReferencesCell Press. (2010, May 6). Your arteries may be suffering insulin resistance, too. ScienceDaily.Retrieved September 7, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100504124340.htmKrough, D. (2014). Biology: A guide to the natural world (5th ed., pp. 541-545). Boston, MA:Pearson.Robertson, L. A., Kim, A. J., & Werstuck, G. H. (2006). Mechanisms linking diabetes mellitus tothe development of atherosclerosis: A role for endoplasmic reticulum stress and glycogensynthase kinase-3. Canadian Journal Of Physiology & Pharmacology, 84(1), 39-48. doi:10.1139/Y05-142Saudek, C. D., Rubin, R. R., & Donner, T. W. (2014). The John Hopkins guide to diabetes forpatients and families (2nd ed., pp. 1-36). Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.Tortora, G. j., & Neilsen, M. T. (2012). Principles of human anatomy (12th ed., pp. 488-542).Hobeken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.University of Rochester Medical Center. (2008, March 17). How Diabetes DrivesAtherosclerosis. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 7, 2015 fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080313124430.htmPart III. Rough DraftWorking from your outline, write your rough draft. Follow APA style guides and include in text citations. An APA sample paper is posted on Canvas. Remember, keep your tone formal and academic. Your rough draft MUST have 5 – 7 pages of text plus a separate reference page. If you do not have 5 full pages, go back and conduct additional research.Part IV. The Final Draft – DUE 5/20/2022Make sure the content of the paper is 5- 7 pages. The abstract, title page and reference pages are in addition to these 5 – 7 pages. Make the corrections and incorporate feedback into your final draft. Upload to Canvas! The grading rubric is on the next page for your review.