MUST HAVE THE BOOK ” Leading Change “by John P. Kotter
THIS IS A RESPONSE TO A TWO DISCUSSION POST- PLEASE RESPONSE USING 300 WORDS FOR EACH. Four scholarly
citations in APA format a piece . Any sources cited must have been published within the last three years.
Acceptable sources include scholarly citations from peer-reviewed journals, any of the course
texts, and the Bible. Please use bible scriptures for each thread.
Post 1 Trudy
I cheered and showed off his certificates to the entire family. Four-year-old John understood he had done a good thing and enjoyed the attention for doing that good thing, so he did it again, and again. Without fail, I celebrated every victory, from kindergarten all through high school. There is a trophy wall in the home that almost feels like a shine to years of consistent excellence. No one was surprised my son got accepted to Stanford University with a full scholarship. Each grade was a short-term win making the semesters seem to fly by. I was there at his graduation and got to meet Reed Jobs, Steve Jobs’s son, who was in my son’s graduating class.
An overlooked, underused change strategy that moves progress along is Kotter’s principle of short-term wins. Vision casts a long view for an organization, and short-term wins are the wind that creates speed and momentum to drive the ship to that horizon. For John and I, a scholarship to his dream school was the big vision we worked towards. Celebrating good grades along the way took the pain out of the study process, making the sacrifices feel worth it.
The strategy for deliberately seeking short-term wins may seem like a waste of time to the leaders overwhelmed with a large-scale organizational change (Kotter, 2012, p. 129). Sometimes, the shortcut to what appears to be a short-term win does not meet the criteria of Kotter’s change principle. For example, laying off workers just before a financial report to add back dollars to the profit and loss statement, is not a short-term win, even though it may seem to be a win to remote shareholders looking at a data sheet.
Kotter’s short-term win concept has three characteristics (Kotter, 2012, p. 126). First, the win is visible. John’s trophies and certificates of achievement are examples of visible social proof of the short-term win. Secondly, the win must be unambiguous. It is hard to challenge taking the number one spot at a national math competition when the trophy for that win is sitting there in full view, and everyone can appreciate the gravity of that accomplishment. Third, and no less important, the win must be related to the change effort. The road to being the person who will earn a full scholarship to a top university is not an overnight experience, and all the small accomplishments along the way were steps along the path of the long game vision.
John’s consistency in effort ensured greater support from the family and even the extended family. The critics who thought initial wins were just luck were silenced as the wins kept rolling in. When the application for the scholarship was submitted there was evidence to support the value of John as a real candidate for consideration. These benefits are examples of some of Kotter’s points for the role of short-term wins, and organizations seeking major change would be wise to deliberately build opportunities for wins.
The Syrian refugee flow into Turkey presented a major change to the country and its resources as well as relationships with the European Union. A short-term win strategy was implemented via ‘transactionalism’, a buzzword coming out of an effort spearheaded by a Trump foreign policy. Through this short-term venture, Turkey accepted the initial pool of refugees, slowing their move into the rest of the EU, and the EU would send millions of dollars to Turkey to help finance that accommodation (Bashirov, et al. 2020).
Bragge (2019) shared governments saw short-term wins as a valid strategy for optimizing evidenced-based policy. These short-term wins were referred to as the ‘nudge’ movement, probably because they kept the momentum in the direction desired.
Research on Kotter’s short-term wins brought up inadequate resources, a finding echoed by Sittrop et al., (2021). The few resources they cited were older than the parameters of this study. However, psychology-based research by Chindamo et al., (2021) found that the short-term reward produced by psychoactive substances “may lead to persistent aberrant behavior despite adverse consequences.” While this study was around addiction, the premise that short-term rewards will trigger persistent behavior that delivers future rewards has application in the organizational space.
When Jesus died the disciples felt all hope was lost. Upon His resurrection, Jesus appeared from time to time before returning to heaven. Peter seemed to have lost his purpose and returned to fishing which proved futile. Then Jesus shows up and tells him to cast his net on the other side of the boat, despite catching nothing all day, this move of obedience delivers an immediate reward (King James Bible, 1769/2017, John 21:1-10). Organizations sometimes lose clarity and forget their vision and mission when the going gets tough, but this story is a reminder that a short-term win when times are difficult is all it takes to reignite the fire to keep going.
• Bashirov, G., & Yilmaz, I. (2020). The rise of transactionalism in international relations: Evidence from turkey’s relations with the European Union. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 74(2), 165-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/10357718.2019.1693495 (Links to an external site.)
• Bragge, P. (2019). Ten ways to optimize evidence-based policy. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 8(15), 1253-1256. https://doi.org/10.2217/cer-2019-0132 (Links to an external site.)
• Cuppone, D., Gómez Pérez, L. J., Cardullo, S., Cellini, N., Sarlo, M., Soldatesca, S., Chindamo, S., Madeo, G., & Gallimberti, L. (2021). The role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of behavioral addictions: Two case reports and review of the literature. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 10(2), 361-370. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00032 (Links to an external site.)
• King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/, 1769/2017
• Kotter, J. P. (2012). Leading change. Harvard Business Review Press.
• Sittrop, D., & Crosthwaite, C. (2021). Minimizing Risk—The application of Kotter’s change management model on customer relationship management systems: A case study. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 14(10), 496. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14100496 (Links to an external site.)
Post 2 Wesley
Communicating the Change Vision
Communicating the change vision is the fourth step in Kotter’s change model (Sittrop & Crosthwaite, 2021). Kotter points out that this step is most successful after many hours (perhaps hundreds) have been devoted to the previous step of developing a vision and strategy (Kotter, 2012). Once leaders and members of the guiding coalition have fully immersed themselves in the vision and strategy, they are better prepared to launch the communication campaign. The author has personal experience relative to this concept as a worship pastor restructuring an entire program and ministry in a local church.
A Strategic Shift
When the author was initially hired to lead the worship program of a local church, the team operated in what the author would soon learn to be a common approach. In short, a collection of musicians and vocalists rotated around a central worship leader. The schedule was most often based largely on availability. While effective, this resulted in limited continuity and functionally stifled creativity. However, the author maintained this operation for much of the first year. During this period, the author began developing a vision for the ministry that involved raising up additional worship leaders and establishing consistent bands of musicians under the care of those leaders. In essence, then, an entire unit or band would be scheduled throughout the month as opposed to a rotating cast. This approach seemed more appropriate to the church context and aligned with the mission.
Simplicity is Key
Kotter articulates that, “the time and energy required for effective vision communication are directly related to the clarity and simplicity of the message” (Kotter, 2012, p. 91). Over the course of many months, the author began to identify four key components of the vision for this restructuring: a) gospel, b) creativity, c) excellence, and d) mission. These became branded as the four pursuits of the worship ministry, and the restructuring of the team would best serve these pursuits. With these established, the task of effectively communicating the change vision was at hand.
Banerjee and Lowalekar (2021) point out that significant change efforts require support from key stakeholders. The first forum in which the author communicated the change vision involved only the lead pastor. Following several conversations that further honed the vision, the author then communicated with the elders, and finally with two key leaders on the ministry team. Only after each of these stakeholders was engaged did the author schedule a meeting with the entire ministry team.
During this all-hands meeting the author outlined the four pursuits of the worship ministry and how the restructure from rotating cast to consistent bands would best support the vision. Following the presentation there was ample time for questions and transparency. One of the key components to early buy-in was the opportunity for musicians to self-select into the bands of their choosing. In a study conducted by Schulz-Knappe et al. (2019), employee ownership and participation in elements of change was found to be critical to the overall success of the initiative. In this way, self selection served the purpose of ownership of the vision. Furthermore, this degree of ownership in the change no doubt impacted the level of commitment to the change, which Maçães and Román-Porta (2021) identify as a key contributor to change success or failure.
Finally, Kotter admonishes leaders to pursue multiple pathways and avenues of communication (Kotter, 2021). In addition to conversations and presentations, the author commissioned a local artist to create four pieces, one for each of the four pursuits. These were displayed prominently in the rehearsal space of the worship ministry as visibly reminders of the vision driving the change. This element of communication was aided by the simplicity of the vision in these four words.
Changes occur in organizations for a myriad of reasons. For those changes that are planned, leaders are wise to carefully focus on their communication in such times. Paul was intentional in preparing Timothy to carry on the ministry (King James Bible, 1769/2017, 2 Timothy 2:2). However, scripture records no such account of David’s preparation of Solomon or Adonijah to take over the kingdom at the event of his coming passing (Merida, 2015). Kotter’s change model offers leaders an effective strategy for communicating their vision for the future.
Banerjee, D. & Lowalekar, H. (2021). Communicating for change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 34(5), 1018-1035. https://doi.org10.1108/JOCM-10-2020-0325
King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)
Kotter, J.P. (2012). Leading Change. Harvard Business Review Press.
Maçães, M. A. R., & Román-Portas, M. (2022). The effects of organizational communication, leadership, and employee commitment in organizational change in the hospitality sector. Communication & Society, 35(2), 89-106. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.35.2.89-106
Merida, T. (2015). Christ-centered exposition commentary: Exalting Jesus in 1 & 2 Kings. B&H Publishing Group.
Schulz-Knappe, C., Koch, T., & Beckert, J. (2019). The importance of communicating change. Corporate Communications, 24(4), 670-685. https://doi.org10.1108/CCIJ-04-2019-0039
Sittrop, D. & Crosthwaite, C. (2021). Minimizing risk—The application of Kotter’s change management model on customer relationship management systems: A case study. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 14(10), 496. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14100496