Describe fertilization and nerve conduction in terms of the properties of membranes and membrane polarization.

Question 1: Fertilization and Nerve Conduction ()Describe fertilization and nerve conduction in terms of the properties of membranes and membrane polarization.Include in youranswer:a. the development of the “resting potential” in the egg and the neuron and the events occurring during fertilization and an“action potential”b. the events that lead to slow and fast blocks to polyspermyc. a description of the differences between the “wave of depolarization” that passes over the egg and the “action potential” thatpropagates along a neuron
Question 2: Excretion and OsmoregulationDescribe nitrogenous waste removal and salt and water balance (osmoregulation) of birds.Include in your answer:a. a comparison of avian and mammalian kidneys with special reference to the structures and functions of nephronsb. the blood circulatory pattern of the avian kidney and the function of the renal portal valvesc. the structure and function of salt glands and the advantage for birds of a non-pressure based compared to a pressure-basedosmoregulatory mechanism
Question 3: Animal Life HistoriesCompare and contrast the life histories (life cycles) of invertebrate animals from different phyla using specific animal examples.Include in your answer:a. a description of fertilization, cleavage, and embryonic development of eggs with different amounts of yolkb. the many advantages of life histories that include a larval stage for marine animals and for insectsc. a description of the life history of parasitic trematode worms and the features that increase reproductive success even thoughthe life histories are complex and must pass through multiple hostsd. the advantages of asexual reproduction and the advantages of sexual reproduction
Question 4: Tides and SeasonsCompare and contrast seasons and tides in temperate and tropical areas with respect to the positions of Earth and Luna, Earth’s tiltrelative to its orbital plane, and insolation.Include in your answer:a. a description for the reasons for seasonsb. how tides are produced and the reasons that tides are more extreme in temperate latitudes compared to tropical latitudesc. how tides affect the vertical distribution (zonation) of marine animalsd. descriptions of specific adaptations of animals for survival in splash, high tide, middle tide and low tide zones.